Dehydration in General

Adolph, E.F. (1947) Physiology of Man in the Desert. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York (1947)
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ Publication # 02-R0203
Eastwood, M (1997) Principles of Human Nutrition, Chapter 8: Water, Electrolytes Minerals and Trace Elements. London: Chapman & Hall (1997)
Greenleaf, J.E. et al (1996) Mechanisms Controlling Fluid Ingestion: Thirst and Drinking. In: Buskirk, E.R. et al. (Eds). Body Fluid Balance: Exercise and Sport, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (1996)
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2004) Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington DC: The National Academies Press (2004)
Johnson, A.K. (1990) Brain Mechanisms in the Control of Body Fluid Homeostasis. In: Gisolfi, C.V. et al. (Eds) Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Vol 3. Fluid Homeostasis During Exercise. Carmel, IN: Benchmark Press. 347-419 (1990)
Mantz, F. et al. (2002) The Most Essential Nutrient: Defining the Adequate Intake of Water. J. Pediatr. 141:587-592 (2002)
National Statistics National Hospital Discharge Survey - ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code 276.5; Hypovolemia = Volume Depletion (2005)
National Statistics HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (2005)
Oliver, S.J. et al. (2008) Saliva Indices Track Hypohydration During 48h of Fluid Restriction or Combined Fluid and Energy Restriction. Archives of Oral Biology (2008), doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.05.002
Sawka, M.N. et al. (2005) Human Water Needs. Nutrition Reviews 63:S30-S39 (2005)
Wilson, M.M. et al. (2003) Prevention and Management of Dehydration. The Consultant Pharmacist, August 1999.

Methods of Hydration Measurement

Armstrong, L. E. et al. (1994) Urinary Indices of Hydration Status. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 4:265-279 (1994)
Armstrong, L. E. et al. (1998) Urinary Indices During Dehydration, Exercise and Rehydration. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 8:345-355 (1998)
Armstrong, L.E. (2005) Hydration Assessment Techniques. Nutr. Rev. 63, No. 6, S40-S54 (2005)
Armstrong, L.E. (2007) Assessing Hydration Status: The Elusive Gold Standard. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 5, 575S-584S (2007)
Kavouras, S.A.( 2002) Assessing Hydration Status. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 5:519-524 (2002)
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Blood Pressure Tables for Children and Adolescents
Oppliger, R.A. et al. ( 2002) Hydration Testing for Athletes. Sports Med 32:959-971 (2002)
Pesola, G.R. et al. (2001) The normal difference in bilateral indirect blood pressure recordings in normotensive individuals. Am J Emerg Med 19 (1): 43-45 (2001)
Pollock, M.L. et al. (1996) Urine Osmolality in World Class Athletes Making Weight. The Physiologist 39: 50-53 (1996)
Pollock, N.W. et al. (1997) Evaluation of Field Measurements of Urine Concentration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29: 5. S261 (1997)
Popowski, L.A. et al. (2001) Blood and Urinary Measures of Hydration During Progressive Acute Dehydration. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 33:747-753 (2001)
Shirreffs, S.M. (2000) Markers of Hydration Status. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 40(1): 80-84 (2000)
Shirreffs, S.M. (2003) Markers of Hydration Status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 57: Suppl 2. S6-S9 (2003)
Shirreffs, S.M. et al. (1998) Urine Osmolality and Conductivity as Indices of Hydration Status in Athletes in the Heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 30: 1598-1602 (1998)
Walsh, N. et al. (2004) Saliva Parameters as Potential Indices of Hydration Status during Acute Dehydration. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2004 Sep; 36(9): 1535-1542 (2004)
Walsh, N. et al. (2004) Saliva Flow Rate, Total Protein Concentration and Osmolality as Potential Markers of Whole Body Hydration Status During Progressive Acute Dehydration in Humans. Arch. Oral Biol. 49:149-154 (2004)

Hydration and Athletics

Almond, et al. (2004) Hyponatremia Among Runners in the Boston Marathon. The N. Engl. J. Med. 353;15, 1550-1556 (2004)
American College Of Sports Medicine Position Stand (2007) Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Special Communications, February 2007, 377-390 (2007).
Baker, L.B. et al. (2007) Progressive Dehydration Causes a Progressive Decline in Basketball Skill Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 39:1114-1123 (2007)
Bartok, C. et al. (2004) Hydration Testing in Collegiate Wrestlers Undergoing Hypertonic Dehydration. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2004)
Bergeron, M. (2006) Heat Cramps: Fluid and Electrolyte Challenges During Tennis in the Heat. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 1:19-29 (2006)
Burke, L.M. (1997) Fluid Balance During Team Sports. J. Sports Sci. 15:287-295 (1997)
Casa, D.J. et al. (2000) National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes, Journal of Athletic Training, 2000; 35 (2), 212-224 (2000)
Casa, D.J. et al. (2005) American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Hydration and Physical Activity: Consensus Statements. Current Sports Medicine Reports 4, 115-127 (2005)
Casa, D.J. et al. (2005) External Heat Stroke in Competitive Athletes. Current Sports Medicine Reports, Vol. 4. No 6. November 2005, pp 309-317
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998) Hyperthermia and Dehydration-Related Deaths Associated with Intentional Rapid Weight Loss in Three Collegiate Wrestlers: North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan; November - December 1997. JAMA; 279: 824-825 (1998)
Cheuvront, S. N. et al. (2001) Thermoregulation and Marathon Running: Biological and Environmental Influences. Sports Med. 31:743-762 (2001)
Cheuvront, S. N. et al. (2003) Fluid Balance and Endurance Exercise Performance. Curr. Sports Med. Rep. 2:202-208 (2003)
Cheuvront, S. N. et al. (2005) Hydration Assessment of Athletes. Sports Sci. Exchange No. 97. Barrington, IL: Gatorade Sports Science Institute, 2005.
Convertino, V.A. et al. (1996) American College of Sports medicine Position Stand. Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 28, No.1, pp. i-vii (1996)
Dougherty, K.A. et al. (2006) Two Percent Dehydration Impairs and Six Percent Carbohydrate Drink Improves Boys Basketball Skills. Med. Sci. Sports Exec. 38:1650-1658 (2006)
Edward, A.M. et al. (2007) Influence of Moderate Dehydration on Soccer Performance. Br. J. Sports Med. 41:385-391 (2007)
Gatorade Sports Science Instritute (2006) GSSI Press Release: New Research Suggests that Dehydration Can Have a Game-Changing Negative Impact on the Performance of Adult Basketball Players. Gatorade Sports Science Institute (2006)
Godek, S.F. et al. (2005) Hydration Status in College Football Players Compared with Runners in a Hot and Humid Environment. Am. J. Sports Med. 33:843-851 (2005)
Gonzalez-Alonso, J. et al. (1997) Dehydration Markedly Impairs Cardiovascular Function in Hyperthermic Endurance Athletes During Exercise. J. Appl. Physiol., The American Physiological Society, 1997 pp 329-343 (1997)
Kovacs, E.M. (2006) Hydration and Temperature in Tennis - A Practical Review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5:1-9 (2006)
Lamb, D.R. Hydration: Critical To Athletic Performance. Gatorade Sports Science Institute;
Maughan, R.J. (2003) Impact of Mild Dehydration on Wellness and on Exercise Performance. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57 (Suppl 2): S19-S23 (2003)
Maughan, R.J. et al. (2004) Fluid and Electrolyte Intake and Loss in Elite Soccer Players During Training. Int. J. Sports Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 14:327-340 (2004)
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) NCAA Wrestling Rules Appendix H/Weight Certification Procedures
Noakes, T.D. (2003) Overconsumption of Fluids by Athletes. BMJ. 327: 113-114 (2003)
Sawka, M.N. et al. (2001) Hydration Effect on Thermoregulation and Performance in the Heat. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 128:679-690 (2001)
Sawka, M.N. et al. (2007) American College of Sports Medicine Position Statement: Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.; 39 (2): 377-390 (2007)
Shirreffs, S.M. et al. (2004) Fluid and Electrolyte Needs For Preparation And Recovery From Training and Competition. J. Sports Sci. 22:57-63 (2004)
Stofan, J.R. et al. (2005) Sweat and Sodium Losses in NCAA Football Players: A Precursor to Cramps?. Int. J. Sport Nutr. And Exerc. Metab. Vol 15, No.6 pp 641-652 (2005)

Hydration and Firefighters/Military Personel

Cabanac, M. (1996) Heat Stress and Behavior. In: Fregly, M.J. and Blatteis, C.M., Environmental Physiology. Handbook of Physiology. Volume 1. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 261-278
Fahey, Rita F. et. Al. (2007) Firefighter Fatalities in the United States - 2006, National Fire Protection Agency, Quincy, Massachusetts, June, 2007, pp 1-31 (2007)
Goldman, R.F. (1994) Heat Stress in Industrial Protective Encapsulating Garments. In: Martin, W.F. and Levine, S.P., Protecting Personnel at Hazardous Waste Sites. Butterworth-Heinemann. Boston, USA. Pp. 258-315
Goldman, R.F. (2001) Introduction to Heat-Related Problems in Military Operations. In: Pandolf, K.B. et al., Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments. Volume 1. In: Zajtchuk, R. et al. (Eds), Textbook of Military Medicine, Dept of the Army, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington D.C. . Pp. 3-49 (2001)
Kales, S.N. et al. (2007) Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease Among Firefighters in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 356, No. 12, March 2007, pp 1207-1215 (2007)
National Fire Protection Agency 1584 Standard on the Rehabilitation Process for Members During Emergency Operations and Training Exercises 2008 Edition

Hydration and the Elderly

Arnaud, M.J. et al. (1998) (Eds) Hydration and Aging. Springer Publishing Company, New York (1998)
Bennett, J.A., et al. (2004) Unrecognized Chronic Dehydration in Older Adults: Examining Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors. J. Gerontol. Nurs. 30(11):22 (2004)
Bennett, J.A., et al. (2004) Unrecognized Chronic Dehydration in Older Adults: Examining Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors. J. Gerontol. Nurs. 30(11):22 (2004)
Centers For Medicare & Medicaid Services (2000) HCFA Launches National Campaign To Train Nursing Home Workers To Prevent Weight Loss, Dehydration Among Residents. Http:// (accessed 3/13/2008)
Chan, J. et al. (2002) Water, Other Fluids, and Fatal Coronary Heart Disease: The Adventist Health Study. Am. J. Epidemiol 155(9):827 (2002)
Farrell, M. et al (2007) Brain Malfunction Explains Dehydration in Elderly. Science Daily. Http://
Feinsod, F.M. et al. (2002) Dehydration in Frail, Older Residents in Long-Term Care Facilities. JAMDA November/December 2002 pp 371-376 (2002)
Gross, C.R. et al. (1992) Clinical Indicators of Dehydration Severity in Elderly Patients. J. Emerg. Med. 10:267-274 (1992)
Himmelstein, D.U. et al. (1983) Hypernatremic Dehydration in Nursing Home Patients: An Indicator of neglect. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 31: 466-471 (1983)
Kemper, P. et al. (1991) Lifetime Use of Nursing Home Care. N. Engl. J. Med. 324: 595-600 (1991)
Kugler, J.P. et al. (2000) Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia in the Elderly. American Family Physician 61(12) June 15, 2000 (2000)
Lavizzo-Mourey, R. et al. (1988) Risk Factors for Dehydration Among Elderly Nursing Home Residents. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 36: 213-218 (1988)
Leaf, A. (1984) Dehydration in the Elderly. N. Engl. J. Med. 311: 791-792 (1984)
Mentes, J. (2006) Oral Hydration in Older Adults. Am. J. Nursing; 106(6):40 (2006)
Mentes, J. et al. (2003) Reducing Hydration-Linked Events in Nursing Home Residents. Clin. Nurs. Res. 12(3):210 (2003)
Mentes, J. et al. (2006) Oral Hydration in Older Adults. AJN, Vol. 106, No. 6 (2006)
Metheny, N.M. (2000) Fluid and Electrolyte Balance: Nursing Considerations 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott (2000)
Mukand, J.A. et al. (2003) The Effects of Dehydration on Rehabilitation Outcomes of Elderly Orthopedic Patients. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 85(1): 58-61 (2003)
O'Neill, P.A. et al. (1989) Elderly Female Patients in Continuing Care: Why Are They Hyperosmolar? Gerontology. 35(4):205-209 (1989)
Reiff, T.R. (1987) Water Loss In Aging And Its Clinical Significance. Geriatrics 42: 53-62 (1987)
Rolls, B.J. et al. (1990) Aging and Disturbances in Thirst and Fluid balance. Nutr. Rev. 1990: 137-143 (1990)
Sansavero,A.C. (1997) Dehydration in the Elderly: Strategies for Prevention and Management. Nurse Pract. 1997; 22(4):41-71
Schoeller, D.A. (1989) Changes In Total Body Water With Age. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:1176-1181 (1989)
Sheehy, C.M.. et al. (1999) Dehydration: Biological Considerations, Age-Related Changes, and Risk Factors in Older Adults. Biol. Res. Nurs. 1:30-37 (1999)
Stookey, J. et al. (2005) Is the Prevalence of Dehydration Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults Really Low? Informing Current Debate Over the Fluid Recommendation for Adults Aged 70+ Years. Public Health Nutrition: 8(8), 1275-1285 (2005)
The Wall Street Journal (2007) Medicare Won't Pay Hospitals to Remedy Flubs. (accessed 8/13/2008)
Wakefield, B. et al. (2002) Monitoring Hydration Status in Elderly Veterans. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(2), 132-142 (2002)
Warren, J.L. et al. (1994) The Burden and Outcomes Associated with Dehydration Among US Elderly, 1991. Am. J. Public Health 84:1265-1269 (1994)
Weinberg, A.D. et al. (1994) Indices of Dehydration Amongst Frail Nursing Home Patients: Highly Variable but Stable Over Time. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 42:1070-1073 (1994)
Weinberg, A.D. et al. (1994) Dehydration and Death Among Febrile Episodes In The Nursing Home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 42(9):968-971 (1994)
Weinberg, A.D. et al. (1995) Dehydration: Evaluation and Management in Older Adults. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA 274(19): 1552-1556 (1995)
Wick, J. (1999) Biological Considerations, Age-Related Changes, and Risk Factors in Older Adults. Biological Research for Nursing, Vol. 1, No. 1 30-37 (1999)
Xiao, H. et al. (2004) Economic Burden of Dehydration Among Hospitalized Elderly Patients. Am. J. Health-Syst. Phar. Vol. 61, 2534-2540 (2004)

Hydration and the Very Young

American Academy of Pediatrics (1996) Practice Parameter: The Management of Acute Gastroenteritis in Young Children. Pediatrics. 97:424-435 (1996)
Black, R.E. et al. (2003) Where and Why are 10 Million Children Dying Every Year? Lancet 361:2226-2234 (2003)
Duggan, C. et al. (1992) The Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 41(RR-16): 1-20
Glass, R.I. et al. (1991) Estimates of Morbidity and Mortality Rates for Diarrheal Diseases in American Children. J. Pediatr. 118(4 pt 2): S27-S33
King, C.K. et al. (2003) Managing Acute Gastroenteritis Among Children. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 52(RR-16):1-16 (2003)
Kosek, M. et al. (2000) The Global Burden of Diarrheal Disease, as Estimated from Studies Published Between 1992 and 2000. Bull World Health Org. 81:197204 (2003)
Mayo Clinic Dehydration and Sports: Children at Higher Risk than Adults.
Shaoul, R. et al. (2004) Value of Laboratory Studies in Assessment of Dehydration in Children. Ann Clin Biochem, 41: 192-196 (2004)
Stevenson, G. et al. (2003) The Rise Of Nursing Home Litigation: Findings From A National Survey Of Attorneys. Health Affairs 2(22): 219-229 (2003)

Hydration and Cognitive Performance

Gopinathan, P.M. et al. (1988) Role of Dehydration in Heat Stress Induced Variations in Mental Performance. Arch. Environ. Health 43(1): 15-17
Szinnai, G. et al. (2005) Effect of Water Deprivation on Cognitive-Motor Performance in Healthy Men and Women. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol 289: R275-R280 (2005)
Wyndham, C.H. et al. (1969) Impaired Cognitive Function and Mental Performance in Mild Dehydration, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57(Suppl. 2): S24-S29 (2003)